Indice degli argomenti

  • Nutritional and applied biochemistry - Prof. Enrico Dainese - a.a. 2016/2017

    Born on September 28th, 1967, in Padova (Italy). Married with two children. Master's degree in Biological Sciences (University of Padova), title of PhD in “Biochemistry and biophysics applied to evolutionary biology” (University of Padova). Research activity at the University Paris-Sud (France) and University of Mainz (Germany). From 2000 to 2004 he was Researcher in Biochemistry at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Since 2005 to the present he is Associate Professor in Biochemistry, Faculty of Biosciences, University of Teramo. From 2013 to 2015 he was President of the degree course in Biotechnology. Since 2014 he is coordinator of the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology unit of Research. Member of the Academic Board of the PhD in "Molecular and Cellular Biotechnology". In April 2015 he obtained the National Scientific Qualification as Full Professor in General Biochemistry and Clinical Biochemistry. Current teaching activities: "Structural and functional biochemistry"; "Nutritional and applied biochemistry". "Molecular interactions among gametes and environment". Scientific interests: 1. Structure and function of metalloproteins and membrane proteins; 2. biochemistry of bioactive lipids and nutraceutics involved in inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer; 3. development of new methodologies for the analysis of genetically modified organisms in food. Member of the editorial board of “Frontiers in Membrane Physiology and Biophysics”, and Associate Editor of the the US journal “Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry”. http://scholar.google.it/citations?user=SLHpKr4AAAAJ&hl=it&oi=ao


    INFO ABOUT THE COURSE


    OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE

    • Knowledge and understanding: Demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of the structure, function and interactions of major and minor food components (e.g. vitamins, oligonutrients, poliphenols, flavours, etc.).

      Demonstrate a critical understanding of the changes occurring during food process operations on the physico-chemical properties of foods altering the metabolic bioavailability of nutrients.

      Demonstrate an awareness of the relationship between food, nutrition and health, based on a comprehensive understanding of the different metabolic role of nutrients and bioactive food compounds.
    • Applying knowledge and understanding: Demonstrate a critical understanding of the role of food provenance in maintaining food quality. Undertake a biochemical analysis demonstrating how a food product can be authenticated. The case of typical food and of GMOs containing food.
    • Making judgements: Apply knowledge of the metabolic and nutritional biochemistry for the promotion, development and design of food containing bioactive compounds aimed at the prevention of the main disorders of industrialised countries with high social impact.

    • Communication: Describe the legal framework that applies to the production and commercialisation of food containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Description of the legal requirements, enforcement and the penalties that can be applied within the UE countries.
    • Learning skills: Demonstrate the application of the principles of good laboratory practice (GLP), health and security in the context of a food biochemistry laboratory, also for the purification of nutraceuticals.

      Demonstrate familiarity with evaluation techniques of quantitative and qualitative data collected experimentally in food biochemistry, food processing and nutritional assessment.

      Demonstrate the application of the principles of good laboratory practices (GLP), health and safety in the context of a food biochemistry laboratory, also for nutraceuticals purification.

      Knowing how to critically apply the main biochemical methodologies for the analysis of food quality, composition, authenticity and food safety. Critically discuss the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic metabolic factors on shelf-life and safety of foods.


    PREREQUISITE AND PREPARATORY
    • Prerequisite: Biohemistry of metabolism
    • Preparatory: not necessary

    DUBLIN DESCRIPTORS FOR UNIT

    UNIT 1: Metabolic pathways of macronutrients

    • Knowledge and understanding: Food and nutrients. Structural and energy functions of nutrients. Macro- and micro-nutrients. Non-nutrients. Bioavailability of nutrients. Technological treatments of food, chemical and physical changes and bioavailability of nutrients. Nutrient carbohydrates: monosaccharides and disaccharides, polysaccharides. Biochemical processes in the digestion of carbohydrates. Molecular systems of absorption and transport of the carbohydrates. Carbohydrate reserves in humans: accumulation and mobilization. Mechanisms of regulation of blood glucose. Unavailable carbohydrate and fibers. Glycemic index. Technological processes and nutritional properties of carbohydrates. The example of cereals
    • Applying knowledge and understanding: Protein nutrients: proteins and their constituents. Plastic function and energy of proteins. Bioavailability and nutritional value of food protein sources. Digestion of food proteins. Absorption and transport of amino acids. Main mechanisms of regulation of protein turnover in tissues and systems of the human organism. Control of the metabolism of proteins in humans. Technological processes and nutritional properties of proteins. The example of cereals, legumes and fish.
    • Making judgements: Lipid nutrients: fats, oils and their constituents. Biochemical processes in the digestion of lipids. Absorption and transport of lipids. Training and mobilization of lipid reserves in humans. Regulation of triglyceride and cholesterol. Technological processes and nutritional properties of lipids. The example of vegetable and fish oils.
    • Communication: Bioactive lipids in nutrition: eicosanoids, endocannabinoids and lipokines. Leptin and recent advances in the control of appetite. Bioactive lipids in nutrition: the eicosanoids. Changes that occur during food processing on the physico-chemical properties of lipids able to alter their metabolic bioavailability.
    • Learning skills: Knowing how to critically apply the main biochemical methodologies for the analysis of food quality, composition, authenticity and food safety. Critically discuss the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic metabolic factors on shelf-life and safety of foods.

    UNIT 2: Biochemical-nutritional role of the oligonutrients: functional interactions
    • Knowledge and understanding: Activation and biochemical role of water-soluble vitamins: B1, B2, B6, B12, C, H, PP, folic acid, pantothenic acid.
    • Applying knowledge and understanding: Absorption and transport of vitamin B12. The fat-soluble vitamins: A, D, E, K. Absorption, activation and biological role.
    • Making judgements: Inorganic nutrients. Na, K, Ca, Mg and P: main biochemical roles of macro minerals. Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Mo, I, F, Cr, Se, Co: biochemical role of trace elements.
    • Communication: Interactions between macro- and micro-nutrients (e.g., vitamins, polyphenols, oligonutrients, aromas, etc.) in various foods. The example of the grain, wine, olive oil. Changes of the main antioxidant compounds in food processing and during digestive metabolism.

    • Learning skills: Knowing how to critically apply the main biochemical methodologies for the analysis of food quality, composition, authenticity and food safety. Critically discuss the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic metabolic factors on shelf-life and safety of foods.

    UNIT 3: Functional foods and nutraceuticals.
    • Knowledge and understanding: Molecular and enzymatic alterations in obesity. Obesity as a disease of endogenous biochemical systems that modulate inflammation but also behavioral aspects.
    • Applying knowledge and understanding: Bioactive compounds in foods can prevent diseases spread wide and high social impact in industrialized countries. Nutrigenomics, epigenetic modulation and their role on major human diseases.
    • Making judgements: Functional foods, food supplements, novel foods: biochemical and nutritional insights. Foods containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and biological nutritional quality, legislation and safety. Metabolic pathways of natural compounds (e.g., nutraceuticals, bioactive lipids, etc.) in foods of plant and animal origin.
    • Communication: Bioactive food and nutraceutics. Study of bioactive compounds and metabolic enzymes involved in the quality and safety of food (e.g., wine, olive oil and fish).
    • Learning skills: Knowing how to critically apply the main biochemical methodologies for the analysis of food quality, composition, authenticity and food safety. Critically discuss the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic metabolic factors on shelf-life and safety of foods.

    UNIT 4: Laboratory
    • Knowledge and understanding: Qualitative and quantitative analysis of food proteins by SDS-PAGE and ELISA
    • Applying knowledge and understanding: Measurement of protein solutions via UV spectrophotometry, Bradford assay and densitometric analysis of protein bands on polyacrylamide gel.
    • Making judgements: Description and use of computer programs for the analysis and processing of data (Excel and Image J).
      Preparation and storage of solutions. Biochemical buffers. Use of the spectrophotometer.
    • Communication: Main biochemical methodologies involved in the analysis of the quality, composition, purity and safety of food: protein assay methods (Bradford assay and spectrophotometric assay), SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, ELISA, ELISA-sandwitch, fluorescence spectrophotometry and "Antibody arrays".
    • Learning skills: Knowing how to critically apply the main biochemical methodologies for the analysis of food quality, composition, authenticity and food safety. Critically discuss the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic metabolic factors on shelf-life and safety of foods.

    COURSE BOOKS

    Biochimica degli alimenti e della nutrizione


    RESEARCH MATERIAL

    The Endocannabinoid System and Its Relevance for Nutrition


    INTERMEDIATE TESTS

    April 24th and June

    EVALUATION
    Class and laboratory attendance is strongly recommended.
    - Oral exam for evaluation of technical and scientific knowledge and skills as well as the improvement of a professional and technical language. - Project and research activities for product development with oral presentation of the final product in a dedicated session to evaluate communication, problem solving and team working skills (Dublin descriptors 3,4, 5).

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    Unità 1. Biodisponibilità metabolica dei nutrienti

    Alimenti e nutrienti. Funzioni plastiche ed energetiche dei nutrienti. Macro- e micro-nutrienti. Non-nutrienti. Biodisponibilità dei nutrienti. Trattamenti tecnologici degli alimenti, modifiche chimico-fisiche e biodisponibilità dei nutrienti. Nutrienti glucidici: monosaccaridi e disaccaridi, polisaccaridi. Processi biochimici nella digestione dei glicidi. Sistemi molecolari di assorbimento e trasporto dei glicidi. Riserve glucidiche nell’uomo: accumulo e mobilizzazione. Meccanismi di regolazione della glicemia. Carboidrati non disponibili e fibra. Indice glicemico. Processi tecnologici e proprietà nutrizionali dei glucidi. L’esempio dei cereali.

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    Unità 2. Ruolo biochimico-nutrizionale delle proteine

    Nutrienti protidici: proteine e loro costituenti. Funzione plastica ed energetica dei protidi. Biodisponibilità e valore nutrizionale delle sorgenti proteiche alimentari. Digestione delle proteine alimentari. Assorbimento e trasporto degli aminoacidi. Principali meccanismi di regolazione del turnover delle proteine in tessuti e sistemi dell’organismo umano. Controllo del metabolismo dei protidi nell’uomo. Processi tecnologici e proprietà nutrizionali dei protidi. L’esempio dei cereali, dei legumi e del pesce.

     

    Unità 3. Ruolo biochimico-nutrizionale dei lipidi

    Nutrienti lipidici: grassi, olii e loro costituenti. Processi biochimici nella digestione dei lipidi. Assorbimento e trasporto dei lipidi. Formazione e mobilizzazione delle riserve lipidiche nell’uomo. Regolazione della trigliceridemia e della colesterolemia. Processi tecnologici e proprietà nutrizionali dei lipidi. L’esempio degli olii di origine vegetale e del pesce.I lipidi bioattivi nella nutrizione: gli eicosanoidi, gli endocannabinoidi e le lipochine. La leptina e recenti acquisizioni sul controllo dell’appetito. Lipidi bioattivi nella nutrizione: gli eicosanoidi. Cambiamenti che si verificano durante le operazioni di processo alimentare sulle proprietà chimico-fisiche dei lipidi in grado di alterare la loro biodisponibilità metabolica.

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    Unità 4. Ruolo biochimico-nutrizionaledegli oligonutrienti

    Attivazione e ruolo biochimico delle vitamine idrosolubili: B1, B2, B6, B12, C, H, PP, acido folico, acido pantotenico. Assorbimento e trasporto della vitamina B12. Le vitamine liposolubili: A, D, E, K. Assorbimento, attivazione e ruolo biologico. Nutrienti inorganici. Na, K, Ca, Mg e P: principali ruoli biochimici dei minerali macro. Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Mo, I, F, Cr, Se, Co: ruolo biochimico degli oligoelementi.

     

    Unità 5. Interazioni tra nutrienti nella biochimica metabolica.

    Interazioni tra componenti alimentari maggiori e minori (ad esempio, vitamine, polifenoli, oligonutrienti, aromi, ecc.) in diversi alimenti tipici. L’esempio dei cereali, del vino, dell’olio d’oliva. Modifiche dei principali composti antiossidanti nella trasformazione dell’alimento e durante il metabolismo digestivo.

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    Unità 6. Basi biochimico-molecolari dei disordini alimentari.

    Alterazioni molecolari ed enzimatiche nell’obesità. L’obesità come patologia di sistemi biochimici endogeni che modulano l’infiammazione ma anche aspetti comportamentali. Composti bioattivi presenti negli alimenti in grado di prevenire patologie di vasta diffusione e di elevato impatto sociale tipiche dei paesi industrializzati. Nutrigenomica, modulazione epigenetica e loro ruolo sulle principali patologie umane.

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      Unità 7. Alimenti funzionali e nutraceutica.

      Alimenti funzionali, integratori alimentari, nuovi alimenti: approfondimenti biochimico-nutrizionali. Alimenti contenenti organismi geneticamente modificati (OGM) e biologici: qualità nutrizionale, legislazione e sicurezza d’uso. Vie metaboliche di composti naturali (ad es. nutraceutici, lipidi bioattivi, ecc.) in alimenti di origine vegetale e animale. Composti bioattivi negli alimenti e nutraceutica.Studio di composti bioattivi ed enzimi metabolici coinvolti nella qualità e salubrità degli alimenti (ad esempio vino, olio d’oliva e pesce).

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      Unità 8. Biochimica applicata all’analisi degli alimenti

      Preparazione e conservazione di soluzioni. Tamponi biochimici. Uso dello spettrofotometro. Principali metodologie implicate nell’analisi della qualità, composizione, purezza e sicurezza degli alimenti: metodi di dosaggio proteico (dosaggio Bradford e saggio spettrofotometrico), SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, ELISA, ELISA a doppio sito, spettrofluorimetria a fluorescenza ed “Antibody arrays”.

       

       

      Laboratorio

      Analisi qualitativa e quantitativa di proteine alimentari tramite SDS-PAGE ed ELISA. Dosaggi proteici tramite spettrofotometria UV, metodo Bradford ed analisi densitometrica di banda su gel di poliacrilammide. Descrizione e impiego di programmi al computer per l’analisi e l’elaborazione dei dati (Excel e Image J).

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